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San Fran­cis­co , offi­cial­ly the City and Coun­ty of San Fran­cis­co, is the cul­tur­al, com­mer­cial and finan­cial cen­ter of North­ern Cal­i­for­nia. The only con­sol­i­dat­ed city-coun­ty in Cal­i­for­nia, San Fran­cis­co encom­pass­es a land area of about on the north­ern end of the San Fran­cis­co Penin­su­la, giv­ing it a den­si­ty of about 17,867 peo­ple per square mile (6,898 peo­ple per km2). It is the most dense­ly set­tled large city (pop­u­la­tion greater than 200,000) in the state of Cal­i­for­nia and the sec­ond-most dense­ly pop­u­lat­ed major city in the Unit­ed States after New York City. San Fran­cis­co is the fourth-most pop­u­lous city in Cal­i­for­nia, after Los Ange­les, San Diego and San Jose, and the 14th-most pop­u­lous city in the Unit­ed States—with a Cen­sus-esti­mat­ed 2013 pop­u­la­tion of 837,442. The city and its sur­round­ings are known as the San Fran­cis­co Bay Area, part of the San Jose-San Fran­cis­co-Oak­land com­bined sta­tis­ti­cal area, with an esti­mat­ed pop­u­la­tion of 8.5 mil­lion. San Fran­cis­co (Span­ish for “Saint Fran­cis”) was found­ed on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain estab­lished a fort at the Gold­en Gate and a mis­sion named for St. Fran­cis of Assisi a few miles away. The Cal­i­for­nia Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, mak­ing it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. Due to the growth of its pop­u­la­tion, San Fran­cis­co became a con­sol­i­dat­ed city-coun­ty in 1856. After three-quar­ters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earth­quake and fire, San Fran­cis­co was quick­ly rebuilt, host­ing the Pana­ma-Pacif­ic Inter­na­tion­al Expo­si­tion nine years lat­er. Dur­ing World War II, San Fran­cis­co was the port of embarka­tion for ser­vice mem­bers ship­ping out to the Pacif­ic The­ater. After the war, the con­flu­ence of return­ing ser­vice­men, mas­sive immi­gra­tion, lib­er­al­iz­ing atti­tudes, along with the rise of the “hip­pie” coun­ter­cul­ture, the Sex­u­al Rev­o­lu­tion, the Peace Move­ment grow­ing from oppo­si­tion to Unit­ed States involve­ment in the Viet­nam War, and oth­er fac­tors led to the Sum­mer of Love and the gay rights move­ment, cement­ing San Fran­cis­co as a cen­ter of lib­er­al activism in the Unit­ed States. Polit­i­cal­ly, the city votes strong­ly along lib­er­al Demo­c­ra­t­ic Par­ty lines. San Fran­cis­co is a pop­u­lar tourist des­ti­na­tion, known for its cool sum­mers, fog, steep rolling hills, eclec­tic mix of archi­tec­ture, and land­marks includ­ing the Gold­en Gate Bridge, cable cars, the for­mer prison on Alca­traz Island, and its Chi­na­town dis­trict. San Fran­cis­co is also the head­quar­ters of five major bank­ing insti­tu­tions and var­i­ous oth­er com­pa­nies such as the Gap Inc., Pacif­ic Gas and Elec­tric Com­pa­ny, Yelp, Pin­ter­est, Twit­ter, Uber, Mozil­la and Craigslist.