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Pub­lic trans­port (North Amer­i­can Eng­lish: pub­lic trans­porta­tion or pub­lic tran­sit) is a shared pas­sen­ger trans­port ser­vice which is avail­able for use by the gen­er­al pub­lic, as dis­tinct from modes such as taxi­cab, car­pool­ing or hired bus­es which are not shared by strangers with­out pri­vate arrange­ment. Pub­lic trans­port modes include city bus­es, trol­ley­bus­es, trams (or light rail) and pas­sen­ger trains, rapid tran­sit (metro/subways/undergrounds etc) and fer­ries. Pub­lic trans­port between cities is dom­i­nat­ed by air­lines, coach­es, and inter­ci­ty rail. High-speed rail net­works are being devel­oped in many parts of the world. Most pub­lic trans­port runs to a sched­uled timetable with the most fre­quent ser­vices run­ning to a head­way. Share taxis offer on-demand ser­vices in many parts of the world, and some ser­vices will wait until the vehi­cle is full before it starts. Para­tran­sit is some­times used in areas of low-demand and for peo­ple who need a door-to-door ser­vice. There are dis­tinct dif­fer­ences in urban pub­lic tran­sit between Asia, North Amer­i­ca, and Europe. In Asia, mass tran­sit oper­a­tions are pre­dom­i­nant­ly run by prof­it-dri­ven pri­vate­ly owned and pub­licly trad­ed mass tran­sit and real estate con­glom­er­ates. In North Amer­i­ca, mass tran­sit oper­a­tions are pre­dom­i­nant­ly run by munic­i­pal tran­sit author­i­ties. In Europe, mass tran­sit oper­a­tions are pre­dom­i­nant­ly run by state-owned com­pa­nies. Pub­lic trans­port ser­vices can be prof­it-dri­ven by use of pay-by-the-dis­tance fares or fund­ed by gov­ern­ment sub­si­dies in which flat rate fares are charged to each pas­sen­ger. Ser­vices can be ful­ly prof­itable through high rid­er­ship num­bers and high fare­box recov­ery ratios, or can be reg­u­lat­ed and pos­si­bly sub­si­dized from local or nation­al tax rev­enue. Ful­ly sub­si­dized, zero-fare (free) ser­vices oper­ate in some towns and cities. For his­tor­i­cal and eco­nom­ic rea­sons, there are dif­fer­ences inter­na­tion­al­ly regard­ing use and extent of pub­lic trans­port. While coun­tries in the Old World tend to have exten­sive and fre­quent sys­tems serv­ing their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less com­pre­hen­sive pub­lic trans­port. The Inter­na­tion­al Asso­ci­a­tion of Pub­lic Trans­port (UITP) is the inter­na­tion­al net­work for pub­lic trans­port author­i­ties and oper­a­tors, pol­i­cy deci­sion-mak­ers, sci­en­tif­ic insti­tutes and the pub­lic trans­port sup­ply and ser­vice indus­try. It has 3,400 mem­bers from 92 countries.