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Over­weight is hav­ing more body fat than is opti­mal­ly healthy. Being over­weight is com­mon espe­cial­ly where food sup­plies are plen­ti­ful and lifestyles are seden­tary. Excess weight has reached epi­dem­ic pro­por­tions glob­al­ly, with more than 1 bil­lion adults being either over­weight or obese in 2003. In 2013 this increased to more than 2 bil­lion. Increas­es have been observed across all age groups. A healthy body requires a min­i­mum amount of fat for prop­er func­tion­ing of the hor­mon­al, repro­duc­tive, and immune sys­tems, as ther­mal insu­la­tion, as shock absorp­tion for sen­si­tive areas, and as ener­gy for future use. But the accu­mu­la­tion of too much stor­age fat can impair move­ment, flex­i­bil­i­ty, and alter appear­ance of the body.