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A headache or cepha­lal­gia is pain any­where in the region of the head or neck. It can be a symp­tom of a num­ber of dif­fer­ent con­di­tions of the head and neck. Headaches can result from a wide range of caus­es both benign and more seri­ous. Brain tis­sue itself is not sen­si­tive to pain as it lacks pain recep­tors. Rather, the pain is caused by dis­tur­bance of the pain-sen­si­tive struc­tures around the brain. Nine areas of the head and neck have these pain-sen­si­tive struc­tures, which are the cra­ni­um (the perios­teum of the skull), mus­cles, nerves, arter­ies and veins, sub­cu­ta­neous tis­sues, eyes, ears, sinus­es and mucous mem­branes. There are a num­ber of dif­fer­ent clas­si­fi­ca­tion sys­tems for headaches. The most well-rec­og­nized is that of the Inter­na­tion­al Headache Soci­ety. Headache is a non-spe­cif­ic symp­tom, which means that it has many pos­si­ble caus­es, includ­ing fatigue and sleep depri­va­tion, stress, the effects of med­ica­tions and recre­ation­al drugs, viral infec­tions and com­mon colds, head injury, rapid inges­tion of a very cold food or bev­er­age, den­tal or sinus issues, and many more. Treat­ment of a headache depends on the under­ly­ing cause, but com­mon­ly involves pain killers. Some form of headache is one of the most com­mon­ly expe­ri­enced of all phys­i­cal discomforts.