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An elec­tric vehi­cle (EV), also referred to as an elec­tric dri­ve vehi­cle, uses one or more elec­tric motors or trac­tion motors for propul­sion. An elec­tric vehi­cle may be pow­ered through a col­lec­tor sys­tem by elec­tric­i­ty from off-vehi­cle sources, or may be self-con­tained with a bat­tery or gen­er­a­tor to con­vert fuel to elec­tric­i­ty. EVs include road and rail vehi­cles, sur­face and under­wa­ter ves­sels, elec­tric air­craft and elec­tri­cal­ly pow­ered space vehi­cles. EVs first came into exis­tence in the mid-19th cen­tu­ry, when elec­tric­i­ty was among the pre­ferred meth­ods for motor vehi­cle propul­sion, pro­vid­ing a lev­el of com­fort and ease of oper­a­tion that could not be achieved by the gaso­line cars of the time. The inter­nal com­bus­tion engine (ICE) has been the dom­i­nant propul­sion method for motor vehi­cles for almost 100 years, but elec­tric pow­er has remained com­mon­place in oth­er vehi­cle types, such as trains and small­er vehi­cles of all types.