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Dia­betes mel­li­tus (DM), com­mon­ly referred to as dia­betes, is a group of meta­bol­ic dis­eases in which there are high blood sug­ar lev­els over a pro­longed peri­od. Symp­toms of high blood sug­ar include fre­quent uri­na­tion, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreat­ed, dia­betes can cause many com­pli­ca­tions. Acute com­pli­ca­tions include dia­bet­ic ketoaci­do­sis and non­ke­tot­ic hyper­os­mo­lar coma. Seri­ous long-term com­pli­ca­tions include car­dio­vas­cu­lar dis­ease, stroke, kid­ney fail­ure, foot ulcers and dam­age to the eyes. Dia­betes is due to either the pan­creas not pro­duc­ing enough insulin or the cells of the body not respond­ing prop­er­ly to the insulin pro­duced. There are three main types of dia­betes mel­li­tus: Type 1 DM results from the body’s fail­ure to pro­duce enough insulin. This form was pre­vi­ous­ly referred to as “insulin-depen­dent dia­betes mel­li­tus” (IDDM) or “juve­nile dia­betes”. The cause is unknown. Type 2 DM begins with insulin resis­tance, a con­di­tion in which cells fail to respond to insulin prop­er­ly. As the dis­ease pro­gress­es a lack of insulin may also devel­op. This form was pre­vi­ous­ly referred to as “non insulin-depen­dent dia­betes mel­li­tus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset dia­betes”. The pri­ma­ry cause is exces­sive body weight and not enough exer­cise. Ges­ta­tion­al dia­betes, is the third main form and occurs when preg­nant women with­out a pre­vi­ous his­to­ry of dia­betes devel­op a high blood glu­cose lev­el. Pre­ven­tion and treat­ment involves a healthy diet, phys­i­cal exer­cise, not using tobac­co and being a nor­mal body weight. Blood pres­sure con­trol and prop­er foot care are also impor­tant for peo­ple with the dis­ease. Type 1 dia­betes must be man­aged with insulin injec­tions. Type 2 dia­betes may be treat­ed with med­ica­tions with or with­out insulin. Insulin and some oral med­ica­tions can cause low blood sug­ar. Weight loss surgery in those with obe­si­ty is an effec­tive mea­sure in those with type 2 DM. Ges­ta­tion­al dia­betes usu­al­ly resolves after the birth of the baby. As of 2014, an esti­mat­ed 387 mil­lion peo­ple have dia­betes world­wide, with type 2 dia­betes mak­ing up about 90% of the cas­es. This is equal to 8.3% of the adult pop­u­la­tion, with equal rates in both women and men. In the years 2012 to 2014, dia­betes is esti­mat­ed to have result­ed in 1.5 to 4.9 mil­lion deaths per year. Dia­betes at least dou­bles the risk of death. The num­ber of peo­ple with dia­betes is expect­ed to rise to 592 mil­lion by 2035. The glob­al eco­nom­ic cost of dia­betes in 2014 was esti­mat­ed to be $612 bil­lion USD. In the Unit­ed States, dia­betes cost $245 bil­lion in 2012.