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Hair loss or bald­ness (tech­ni­cal­ly known as alope­cia) is a loss of hair from the head or body. Bald­ness can refer to gen­er­al hair loss or andro­genic alope­cia (male pat­tern bald­ness). Some types of bald­ness can be caused by alope­cia area­ta, an autoim­mune dis­or­der. The extreme forms of alope­cia area­ta are alope­cia total­is, which involves the loss of all head hair, and alope­cia uni­ver­salis, which involves the loss of all hair from the head and the body. Bald­ness and hypotri­chosis can have many caus­es, includ­ing fun­gal infec­tion (tinea capi­tis), trau­mat­ic dam­age, such as by com­pul­sive pulling (tri­chotil­lo­ma­nia), as a result of radio­ther­a­py or chemother­a­py, and as a result of nutri­tion­al defi­cien­cies such as Iron defi­cien­cy, and as a result of autoim­mune phe­nom­e­na, includ­ing alope­cia area­ta and hair loss asso­ci­at­ed with sys­temic lupus erythematosus.